book cover image High-Speed Networking:
A Systematic Approach to High-Bandwidth Low Latency Communication

James P.G. Sterbenz and Joseph D. Touch

with contributions from Julio Escobar, Rajesh Krishnan, and Chunming Qiao
technical editor A. Lyman Chapin
Wiley, 2001
LC: TK5105.5 S743


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Introduction

  1. Bandwidth and Latency
    1. Individual Delay
    2. Aggregate Bandwidth
  2. What is High-Speed?
    1. High-Speed Technologies
    2. Barriers and Constraints
  3. Organisation of this Book
  4. Who Should Read this Book

Chapter 2. Fundamentals and Design Principles

  1. A Brief History of Networking
    1. First Generation: Emergence
    2. Second Generation: The Internet
    3. Third Generation: Convergence and the Web
    4. Fourth Generation: Scale, Ubiquity, and Mobility
  2. Drivers and Constraints
    1. Applications
    2. The Ideal Network
    3. Limiting Constraints
  3. Design Principles and Tradeoffs
    1. Critical Path
    2. Resource Tradeoffs
    3. End-to-End vs. Hop-by-Hop
    4. Protocol Layering
    5. State and Hierarchy
    6. Control Mechanisms
    7. Distribution of Application Data
    8. Protocol Data Units
  4. Design Techniques
    1. Scaling Time and Space
    2. Cheating and Masking the Speed of Light
    3. Specialised Hardware Implementation
    4. Parallelism and Pipelining
    5. Data Structure Optimisation
    6. Latency Reduction
  5. Summary
    1. Further Reading
  6. Fundamental Axioms and Principles

Chapter 3. Network Architecture and Topology

  1. Topology and Geography
    1. Scalability
    2. Latency
    3. Bandwidth
    4. Virtual Overlays and Lightpaths
    5. Practical Constraints
  2. Scale
    1. Network Engineering
    2. Hierarchy
    3. Bandwidth Aggregation and Isolation
    4. Latency Optimisation
    5. Wireless Network Density
    6. Practical Constraints
  3. Resource Tradeoffs
    1. Bandwidth, Processing, and Memory
    2. Latency as a Constraint
    3. Relative Scaling with High Speed
    4. Active Networking
  4. Summary
    1. Further Reading
  5. Network Architecture and Topology Axioms and Principles

Chapter 4. Network Control and Signalling

  1. Signalling and Control
    1. Circuit and Message Switching
    2. Packet Switching
    3. Fast Packet Switching
    4. Intermediate Control Mechanisms
    5. Fast Circuit and Burst Switching
    6. Multicast Flows
    7. Session Control
  2. Traffic Management
    1. Resource Reservation
    2. Network-Based Congestion Control
  3. Path Routing Dynamics
    1. Multipoint Groups
    2. Node Mobility
  4. Monitoring and Management
  5. Summary
    1. Further Reading
  6. Network Control and Signalling Axioms and Principles

Chapter 5. Network Components

  1. Links
    1. Physical Transmission Media
    2. Link Technologies
    3. Link Layer Components
    4. Support for Higher Layers
  2. Switches and Routers
    1. Switching
    2. Traditional Store-and-Forward Routers
    3. Ideal Switch Architecture
  3. Fast Packet Switches
    1. Switch Architecture
    2. Input and Label Processing
    3. Packet Size and Variability
    4. Packet Structure
    5. Traffic Management
    6. Functional Partitioning
  4. Switch Fabric Architecture
    1. Buffering
    2. Single-Stage Shared Elements
    3. Single-Stage Space-Division Elements
    4. Multistage Switches
    5. Multicast Support
  5. Fast Datagram Switches
    1. Overall Architecture and Performance
    2. Fast Forwarding Lookup
    3. Packet Classification and Filtering
    4. Output Processing and Packet Scheduling
  6. Higher Layer and Active Processing
    1. Alternative Strategies
    2. Active Network Nodes
  7. Summary
    1. Further Reading
  8. Network Component Axioms and Principles

Chapter 6. End Systems

  1. End System Components
    1. End System Hardware
    2. End System Software
    3. End System Bottlenecks
    4. Traditional End System Implementation
    5. Ideal End System Architecture
  2. Protocol and OS Software
    1. Protocol Software
    2. Operating Systems
    3. Protocol Software Optimisations
  3. End System Organisation
    1. Host Interconnects
    2. Host–Network Interconnection Alternatives
    3. Host–Network Interface Issues
  4. Host–Network Interface
    1. Offloading of Communication Processing
    2. Network Interface Design
  5. Summary
    1. Further Reading
  6. End System Axioms and Principles

Chapter 7. End-to-End Protocols

  1. Functions and Mechanisms
    1. End-to-End Semantics
    2. End-to-End Mechanisms
    3. Transport Protocols
    4. Control of State
  2. State Management
    1. Impact of High Speed
    2. Transfer Modes
    3. State Establishment and Maintenance
    4. Assumed Initial Conditions
  3. Framing and Multiplexing
    1. Framing and Fragmentation
    2. Application Layer Framing (ALF)
    3. Multiplexing
  4. Error Control
    1. Types and Causes of Errors
    2. Impact of High Speed
    3. Closed-Loop Retransmission
    4. Open-Loop Error Control
  5. Flow and Congestion Control
    1. Impact of High Speed
    2. Open-Loop Rate Control
    3. Closed-Loop Flow Control
    4. Closed-Loop Congestion Control
    5. Hybrid Flow and Congestion Control
  6. Security and Information Assurance
    1. End-to-End Security
    2. High-Speed Security
  7. Summary
    1. Further Reading
  8. End-to-End Axioms and Principles

Chapter 8. Networked Applications

  1. Application Characteristics
    1. Bandwidth
    2. Latency
    3. Error Tolerance
    4. Application Flow Characteristics
  2. Application Categories
    1. Information Access
    2. Telepresence
    3. Distributed Computing
    4. Composed Applications
    5. Non-High-Speed Applications
  3. Application Adaptation
    1. Latency Reduction
    2. Bandwidth Improvement
    3. Scaling and Aggregation
    4. Application Layer Framing (ALF)
    5. Mobile and Wireless Applications
  4. Application–Network Interaction
    1. Network Control (Knobs)
    2. Network Feedback (Dials)
    3. Transparency and Dependence
    4. Legacy Issues
  5. Summary
    1. Further Reading
  6. Application Axioms and Principles

Chapter 9. Future Directions and Conclusions

  1. Looking Toward the Future
    1. Changing Resource Tradeoffs
    2. Technology and Applications
  2. Conclusion

References
Appendix A. Axioms and Principles
Appendix B. Acronyms
Index


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©2003 James P.G. Sterbenz <jpgs@sterbenz.org>